von Neuman Architecture (1946)
Instructions and data are stored in the same memory for which there is a single link (the von Neumann bottleneck) to the CPU which decodes and executes instructions.
The CPU can have multiple functional units.
The memory access can be enhanced by use of caches made from faster memory to allow greater bandwidth and lower latency.
J. Presper Eckert Jr. and John Mauchly were the first to develop the von Neuman architecture. John von Neumann wrote "First Draft of a Report to the EDVAC" describing the ideas of a stored memory computer. The complicated story is described in the wonder history of computers "Engines of the Mind" by Joel Shurkin.
Johann (John) von Neumann (1903-1957)